Questions about the existing technology of industrial robots
I. Technical Overview
The industrial robot is composed of a manipulator (mechanical body), a controller, a servo drive system, and a detection and sensing device. It is a mechatronics automation that simulates human operation, automatic control, repeatable programming, and can perform various tasks in three dimensions Production equipment. It is especially suitable for flexible production with multiple varieties and variable batches. It plays a very important role in stabilizing, improving product quality, improving production efficiency, improving labor conditions and rapid product replacement.
Robotics is a high-tech formed by the integration of computers, cybernetics, mechanism science, information and sensing technology, artificial intelligence, bionics, and other disciplines. It is a field of contemporary research that is very active and increasingly widely used. The application of robots is an important symbol of a country's industrial automation level.
Robots are not a substitute for manual labor in a simple sense, but an anthropomorphic electromechanical device that combines human and machine traits. It has the ability to respond quickly to environmental conditions, analyze and judge people, and has a machine that can last a long time. The ability to work continuously, with high accuracy, and withstand harsh environments. In a sense, it is also a product of the evolution of machines. It is an important production and service equipment in industry and non-industrial circles. It is also indispensable in the field of advanced manufacturing technology. Automation equipment.
Status and development trends at home and abroad
In recent years, the development of foreign robotics has the following trends:
1. The performance of industrial robots has been continuously improved (high speed, high precision, high reliability, easy to operate and maintain), and the price of single machines has continued to decline. The average single machine price has dropped from US $ 103,000 in 1991 to US $ 65,000 in 1997. .
2. The mechanical structure is developing towards modularity and reconfigurability. For example, the three-in-one integration of servo motor, reducer and detection system in the joint module; the entire robot is constructed by the joint module and the link module in a reorganized manner; foreign modular assembly robot products have been launched on the market.
3． The industrial robot control system develops towards the open controller based on PC, which is convenient for standardization and networking; the device integration is improved, the control cabinet is becoming smaller and smaller, and the modular structure is adopted; the system reliability and ease of operation are greatly improved And maintainability.
4． The role of sensors in robots is becoming increasingly important. In addition to traditional position, speed, acceleration and other sensors, assembling and welding robots also use vision, force and other sensors, while remote control robots use vision, sound, force, and touch. Multi-sensor fusion technology is used for environmental modeling and decision-making control; multi-sensor fusion configuration technology has mature applications in productized systems.
5． The role of virtual reality technology in robots has evolved from simulation and preview to process control, such as making remote robot operators feel like they are in a remote working environment to manipulate the robot.
6. The development characteristics of contemporary remote-control robot systems are not the pursuit of a fully autonomous system, but rather the human-machine interactive control of the operator and the robot, that is, the remote control plus the local autonomous system constitutes a complete monitoring remote control operating system, enabling the intelligent robot to get out of the laboratory and enter into practical use. stage. The "Sojena" robot launched by the United States on Mars is the most famous example of the successful application of this system.
7. Robotic machinery is beginning to rise. Since the development of the "virtual axis machine tool" in the United States in 1994, this new type of device has become one of the hotspots in international research, and one after another has explored and expanded its practical applications.
China's industrial robots started from the "Seventh Five-Year Plan" technology research in the 1980s. With the support of the state, through the "Seventh Five-Year Plan" and "August-Five Years" technology research project, they have basically mastered the design and manufacturing technology and control system of robot operating machines Hardware and software design technology, kinematics and trajectory planning technology, produced some key components of the robot, and developed painting, arc welding, spot welding, assembly, handling and other robots; more than 130 sets of painting robots in more than twenty The company has obtained large-scale application on nearly 30 automatic painting production lines (stations), and arc welding robots have been applied to welding lines in automobile manufacturing plants. However, in general, the level of industrial robot technology and its engineering application in China is still far from that of foreign countries, such as: reliability is lower than foreign products; robot application engineering started late, application fields are narrow, and production line system technology and There is a gap in foreign countries; in terms of application scale, China has installed about 200 domestic industrial robots, accounting for about 40,000 of the world's installed units. The above reasons are mainly due to the lack of a robot industry. At present, the production of robots in China is in response to user requirements. "One customer, one redesign", with many varieties and specifications, small batches, low degree of generalization of parts, long supply cycles, and cost It is not low, and the quality and reliability are unstable. Therefore, it is urgent to solve the key technologies in the early stage of industrialization, carry out comprehensive planning for products, do a good job of serialization, generalization, and modular design, and actively promote the industrialization process.
China's intelligent robots and special robots have also achieved many results with the support of the "863" plan. Among them, the most prominent are underwater robots. The achievements of 6000 meters of underwater cableless robots are among the world's leading levels. They have also developed direct remote control robots, dual-arm coordinated control robots, wall-climbing robots, and pipeline robots. In robot vision, A lot of work has been carried out on the development and application of basic technologies such as force, touch, and sound, with a certain development foundation. However, the development and application of multi-sensor information fusion control technology, remote control plus local autonomous system remote control robots, intelligent assembly robots, robotized machinery, etc. have just started, and there is a large gap with foreign advanced levels. Based on the original results, there are Only by systematically tackling key problems, can we form a complete set of technologies and products that can be used in the system, with a view to standing among the world's advanced in the late tenth five-year plan period.